Grade XI (Science-Biology Group)

Course Details

Introduction

नेपाल बहुजातीय, बहुसांस्कृतिक एवम् बहुभाषिक मुलुक हो । बहुजातीय र बहुसांस्कृतिक विशेषता भएको राष्ट्रमा राष्ट्रिय एकता प्रवर्धन गर्न तथा सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक सम्बन्ध र समन्वय कायम गर्न सम्पर्क भाषाको आवश्यकता पर्दछ । यसका लागि विद्यार्थीमा भाषिक सक्षमताको विकास हुनुपर्दछ । विद्यार्थीमा भाषिक सञ्चार एवम् बोध र अभिव्यक्तिगत सिपको विकास हुनु नै भाषिक सक्षमता हो । नेपाली भाषा विद्यालय तहको शिक्षणको प्रमुख माध्यम, सरकारी कामकाज र नेपाली समाजको साझा सम्पर्कको भाषा हो । पहिलो, दोस्रो एवम् विदेशी भाषाका रूपमा नेपाली भाषाको प्रयोग हुँदै आएको छ । यस दृष्टिले नेपाली भाषाको प्रयोगमा व्यापकता रहेको छ । नेपालमा नेपाली भाषा सामाजिकीकरण, अन्तरभाषिक व्यवहार, सञ्चार, प्रशासन, प्रविधि र मौखिक तथा लिखित व्यवहारको प्रमुख माध्यमका रूपमा रहि आएको छ । नेपाली समाजको बहुलतालाई दृष्टिगत गर्दै सबै प्रकारका ज्ञान र सिप प्राप्त गर्न तथा विभिन्न माध्यमबाट अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय स्तरका ज्ञानसमेत नेपाली भाषामा सिक्न सक्ने बनाउन विद्यालय तहमा नेपाली भाषाको शिक्षण अपरिहार्य छ । त्यसैले विद्यालय तहमा नेपाली भाषालाई अनिवार्य विषयका रूपमा शिक्षण गर्नुपरेको हो । नेपाली भाषा शिक्षणको मुख्य उद्देश्य विद्यार्थीमा नेपाली भाषासम्बद्ध भाषिक सिप एवम् व्यावहारिक र सिर्जनात्मक क्षमताको विकास गराउनु हो । प्रस्तुत पाठ्यव्रमको उद्देश्य विद्यार्थीमा भाषिक सक्षमता अभिवृद्धि गराउनु हो । (कक्षा ९–१०) पूरा गरेका विद्यार्थीको स्तरलाई ध्यान दिई विद्यालय तहको समाप्तिपछि अन्य क्षेत्रमा लाग्ने तथा उच्च शिक्षामा प्रवेश गर्नेहरूको आधारभूमिका रूपमा नेपाली भाषामा सक्षम बनाउने अभिप्रायले यो पाठ्यव्रmम तयार पारिएको हो । माध्यमिक तह (कक्षा ११–१२) पूरा गर्दा विद्यार्थीहरूले नेपाली विषयमा प्राप्त गर्ने तहगत सक्षमता र कक्षागत सिकाइ उपलब्धिलाई यस पाठ्यव्रmममा समावेश गरिएको छ । पाठ्यव्रmममा विद्यार्थीमा बोध एवम् अभिव्यक्तिगत क्षमताको विकासका लागि उपयुक्त विधा र क्षेत्र निर्देश गरिएको छ । यसमा प्रयोजनपरक भाषिक सिप विकास र कार्यमूलक व्याकरणमा विशेष ध्यान दिइएकोछ । तदनुरूपका सिकाइ सहजीकरण प्रव्रिmया र मूल्याङ्कन विधि पनि समेटिएका छन् । (Detailed Syllabus)

Introduction

English is a lingua franca and is an appropriate international language for Nepal to be connected with global community. It is not only the language of international communication but also a language of higher education, mass media, information and communication technology (ICT), business, tourism, science and medicine. In the context of Nepal, English is necessary for various purposes. To be specific, our learners need English to participate in classroom interactions; to study course materials; to read things for pleasure and general information; to gain access to the world body of knowledge; to read and enjoy a wide range of literary texts, to participate in international meetings, seminars and conferences; to communicate with foreigners in general; to enhance their career development, and many more. English is taught as a compulsory subject from grade one to the bachelors level. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoEST) has approved the National Curriculum Framework (NCF), 2076 addressing the changed socio-political condition of the country and the current needs of the learners. This grade 11and 12 E nglish curriculum has been developed in line with the spirit of the new NCF. The present curriculum addresses all four language skills with prime focus on reading and writing skills. It focuses on the types of reading and writing skills that are necessary for the students in their real life. It also includes the language functions which the students need for their further studies and the world of work. A strong grammatical foundation is also given due consideration in this curriculum. This curriculum is based on the principle that learners learn language when they get sufficient opportunity to use it in appropriate contexts. Content should not be detached from the use of language. Content and language should be integrated while teaching. Therefore, the curriculum has focused not only on language and language functions, but also on a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts which provide a meaningful context for language learning. For some students, secondary education serves as a basis for preparation for the university education, whereas for some other students, it may be a preparation for entry into the world of work. This curriculum tries to address the linguistic requirements of both types of students. This curriculum focuses on both the intensive reading of texts which is intended for language development in the learners and the extensive reading of texts which is intended for processing content and developing higher order reading and writing skills. Soft skills including critical thinking and creativity of the students have also been given due importance. For this purpose, a wide variety of texts have been included under various themes and topics. This curriculum includes level-wise competencies of students, grade-wise learning outcomes, scope and sequence of contents, learning facilitation process and evaluation process. (Detailed Syllabus)

Introduction

Introduction

This curriculum presumes that the students joining grade 11 and 12 science stream come with diverse aspirations, some may continue to higher level studies in specific areas of science, others may join technical and vocational areas or even other streams. The curriculum is designed to provide students with general understanding of the fundamental scientific laws and principles that govern the scientific phenomena in the world. It focuses to develop scientific knowledge, skill competences and attitudes required at secondary level (grade 11-12) irrespective of what they do beyond this level, as envisioned by national goals. Understanding of scientific concepts and their application, in day to day context as well as the process of obtaining new knowledge through holistic approach of learning in the spirit of national qualification framework is emphasized in the curriculum. In particular, this curriculum aims to provide sufficient knowledge and understanding of science for all learners to become confident citizens in the technological world. It helps the students to recognize the usefulness and limitations of laws and principles of physics and use them in solving problems encountered in their daily lives along a sound foundation for students who wish to study physics or related professional or vocational courses in higher education. It also helps to develop science related attitudes such as a concern for safety and efficiency, concern for accuracy and precision, objectivity, a spirit of enquiry, inventiveness, appreciation of ethno-science, and willingness to use technology for effective communication. It also promotes awareness of the principles and laws of science that are often the result of cumulative efforts and their studies and applications are subject to economic and technological limitations and social, cultural and ethical perceptions/acceptance. The curriculum prepared in accordance with National Curriculum Framework is structured for two academic years in such a way that it incorporates the level-wise competencies, grade-wise leaning outcomes, scope and sequence of contents, suggested practical/project activities, learning facilitation process and assessment strategies so as to enhance the learning on the subject systematically. (Detailed Syllabus)

Introduction

This curriculum presumes that the students joining grade 11 and 12 science stream come with diverse aspirations, some may continue to higher level studies in specific areas of science, others may join technical and vocational areas or even other streams. The curriculum is designed to provide students with general understanding of the fundamental scientific laws and principles that govern the scientific phenomena in the world. It focuses to develop scientific knowledge, skill competences and attitudes required at secondary level (grade 11 and 12) irrespective of what they do beyond this level, as envisioned by national goals. Understanding of scientific concepts and their application, in day to day context as well as the process of obtaining new knowledge through holistic approach of learning in the spirit of national qualification framework is emphasized in the curriculum. In particular, the curriculum aims to provide sufficient knowledge and understanding of science for all learners to recognize the usefulness, and limitations, of laws and principles of biology, and use them in daily lives providing a sound foundation for students who wish to study biology or related professional or vocational courses in higher education. It helps to strengthen science process skills that are relevant to the study and application of biological science in daily life. It also provides opportunity for the learners who have deeper interest in the subject to delve into the more advanced contents so that the study of biology becomes enjoyable and satisfying to all. Moreover, it helps the students to build up capacity to identify, gather, manipulate and process information in the context of scientific endeavors including field investigations in various formats on biological issues. The curriculum prepared in accordance with National Curriculum Framework is structured for two academic years in such a way that it incorporates the level-wise competencies, grade-wise leaning outcomes, scope and sequence of contents, suggested practical/project activities, learning facilitation process and assessment strategies so as to enhance the learning on the subject systematically. (Detailed Syllabus)

Introduction

This curriculum is of grade 11 and 12 chemistry. This is designed to provide students with general understanding of the fundamental scientific laws and principles that govern the scientific phenomena in the world. It focuses to develop scientific knowledge, skills, and attitudes required at secondary level (grade 11 and 12) irrespective of what they do beyond this level, as envisioned by national goals. Understanding of scientific concepts and their application, in day to day context as well as the process of obtaining new knowledge through holistic approach of learning in the spirit of national qualification framework is emphasized in the curriculum. This curriculum aims: to provide sufficient knowledge and skills to recognize the usefulness and limitations of laws and principles of chemistry, to develop science related attitudes such as concern for safety and efficiency, concern for accuracy and precision, objectivity, spirit of enquiry, inventiveness, appreciation of ethno-science, and willingness to use technology for effective communication, to provide opportunity for the learners who have deeper interest in the subject to delve into the more advanced contents so that the study of chemistry becomes enjoyable and satisfying to all. The curriculum prepared in accordance with National Curriculum Framework is structured for two academic years in such a way that it incorporates the level-wise competencies, grade-wise learning outcomes, scope and sequence of contents, suggested practical/project-work activities, learning facilitation process and assessment strategies so as to enhance the learning of the subject systematically. (Detailed Syllabus)

Introduction

Mathematics is an indispensable in many fields. It is essential in the field of engineering, medicine, natural sciences, finance and other social sciences. The branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other fields and inspires new mathematical discoveries. The new discoveries in mathematics led to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines. School mathematics is necessary as the backbone for higher study in different disciplines. Mathematics curriculum at secondary level is the extension of mathematics curriculum offered in lower grades (1 to 10). This course of Mathematics is designed for grade 11 and 12 students as an optional subject as per the curriculum structure prescribed by the National Curriculum Framework, 2075. This course will be delivered using both the conceptual and theoretical inputs through demonstration and presentation, discussion, and group works as well as practical and project works in the real world context. Calculation strategies and problem solving skills will be an integral part of the delivery. This course includes different contents like; Algebra, Trigonometry, Analytic Geometry, Vectors, Statistics and Probability, Calculus, Computational Methods and Mechanics or Mathematics for Economics and Finance. Student’s content knowledge in different sectors of mathematics with higher understanding is possible only with appropriate pedagogical skills of their teachers. So, classroom teaching must be based on student-centered approaches like project work, problem solving etc. (Detailed Syllabus)

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